Operational Physics

Robert Howard Kroepel
Lakeside Studios
New Durham New Hampshire, USA
The Fundamental Law of Physics: The Law of Inertia
The Corollaries to the Law of Inertia
The Inertial Reference Frame
The Three Dimensions of Physics
The Concept of Length
The Concept of Time
The Concept of Mass
The Operational Physics Theory of Space [OpPhys ToS]
The Operational Physics Theory of Time [OpPhys ToT]
The Operational Physics Theory of Physics—Matter/Energy [OpPhys ToP]
The Speed of Light [SOL]
The SOL as a Limiting Velocity
An Alternative Explanation of Why the SOL Is a Limiting Velocity
The Absolute Rest Reference Frame [ARRF]
Absolute Velocity
The Cosmic Speedometer
The Universe
The Spatial Reality—Space
The Temporal Reality—Time
The Continuum of Time
The Physical Reality—Physics
Comments: The Universe Has Always Existed
Comments: There is One And Only One Universe

The Philosophical Concepts and Principles of Physics Changed by the TITI
Absolute Rest (AR), the Absolute Rest Reference Frame (ARRF), and Absolute Motion (AM)
Absolute Space [AS] and Absolute Time [AT/UT]

Absolute Length [AL]

Simultaneity

The Scientific Method

The scientific method is the process/procedure by which scientists observe, develop and test [verify—prove true or falsify—prove false] hypotheses which describe natural causal relationships [NCRs] between/among objects/events comprised of matter/energy [m/e].

1. Specify the unit of study [the people/things/events to be studied].
2. Observe and/or measure the units of study to gather data.
3. Create a causal hypothesis which describes and predicts the causes of effects among the people/things/events who/which are the units of study.
4. Observe/measure more people/things/events who/which are units of study to gather additional data which can be used to confirm [verify] or deny [falsify] the causal hypothesis.
5. Determine if or not the additional data confirm/verify or deny the causal hypothesis.
6. If the data confirm the causal hypothesis, then let other people know of the hypothesis and the scientific method that lead to the creation and confirmation of the hypothesis, and declare the verified/confirmed hypothesis to be a scientific law/law of nature; but if the data do not confirm the causal hypothesis, then either revise the hypothesis to fit the data, or else create a new hypothesis and follow the Scientific Method Steps 4-6.

When an hypothesis is confirmed it is accepted as a valid and true description of a natural causal relationship [NCR] until a disconfirming case is observed.

The Extrapolation Principle

The extrapolation principle (EP) says that when a phenomenon is observed at one scalar level it is assumed to occur at all scalar levels until a disconfirming/falsifying case is observed (and not merely intuited).

The extrapolation principle is similar to inductive reasoning in which many examples/cases are observed to derive data from which generalizations can be derived which are assumed to be true/verified until a disconfirming/falsifying case is observed.

In inductive reasoning there is no necessary initial assumption of the extrapolation principle, but it is implied as true/verified until a disconfirming/falsifying case is observed.

Thus, to include the extrapolation principle, the scientific method can be modified slightly:

1. Specify the unit of study [the people/things/events to be studied].
2. Observe and/or measure the units of study to gather data.
3. Create a causal hypothesis which describes and predicts the causes of effects among the people/things/events who/which are the units of study.
4. Observe/measure more people/things/events who/which are units of study to gather additional data which can be used to confirm [verify] or deny [falsify] the causal hypothesis.
5. Determine if or not the additional data confirm/verify or deny the causal hypothesis.
6. If the data confirm the causal hypothesis, then let other people know of the hypothesis and the scientific method that lead to the creation and confirmation of the hypothesis, and declare the verified/confirmed hypothesis to be a scientific law/law of nature; but if the data do not confirm the causal hypothesis, then either revise the hypothesis to fit the data, or else create a new hypothesis and follow the Scientific Method Steps 4-6. Extrapolation of the confirmed hypothesis from the observed scales to all other scales until disconfirming [falsifying] people/things/events are observed is acceptable. [Italics for emphasis]

Infinity

Infinite = Having no spatial, temporal, physical, and/or mathematical limits.
Finite = Having spatial/temporal/physical and/or mathematical limits.

Infinity = The state of having no spatial/temporal/physical and/or mathematical limits.
Finity = The state of having spatial/temporal/physical and/or mathematical limits.

The Concept of Causality

Causality = Causes Causing/Creating Effects.

Causality = People/Objects/Events Causing Effects.

People/Objects/Events who/which are comprised of matter/energy [m/e] can be/often are forces [pushes or pulls] who/which are called causes and who/which change the inertial states of other objects/events, and these changes of inertial states are called effects.

The Fundamental Law of Physics: The Law of Inertia

Charles Proteus Steinmetz.
Four Lectures on Relativity and Space.
Dover Publications, Inc., 180 Varick Street, New York, NY 10014 1967
pp. 49–50.

The fundamental law of physics is the law of inertia. "A body keeps the same state as long as there is no cause to change its state." That is, it remains at rest or continues the same kind of motion—that is, motion with the same velocity in the same direction—until some cause changes it, and such cause we call a 'force.' " [Quotes in the original, but not attributed to anyone.]

This is really not merely a law of physics, but it is the fundamental law of logic. It is the law of cause and effect: "Any effect must have a cause, and without cause there can be no effect." This is axiomatic and is the fundamental conception of all knowledge, because all knowledge consists in finding the cause of some effect or the effect of some cause, and therefore must presuppose that every effect has some cause, and inversely. [Quotes in the original but not attributed to anyone.]

By the law of inertia, forces cause changes of inertial states.

By the law of inertia, because forces cause changes of inertial states, causality can be defined as the set of conditions and consequences wherein a force as a cause causes/creates the effect of a change of inertial state.

A force is a push or a pull; a force is comprised of matter and/or energy [m/e]

An inertial state will have a speed and a direction, which, when combined, are described, together, by the term velocity.

A velocity of 0 mps [miles per second] means an object has an inertial state of being at rest, or not moving, of not having a uniform motion.

The Corollaries to the Law of Inertia

There are at least three corollaries to the law of inertia:
1. A force is a form of matter/energy which causes an acceleration or a deceleration which causes a push or a pull on an object.
2. A force of some kind is the cause of a change of the inertial state of a body [object].
3. The observation of a change of the inertial state of a body [object] implies the cause of that change of inertial state to be a force of some kind.
By Corollary 1, only a force as a push or a pull which is a form of matter/energy can cause an acceleration or deceleration which can change an object's inertial state.

By Corollary 2, the only physical phenomenon which can change an object's inertial state [IS] is a force of some kind—a push or a pull.

By Corollary 3, whenever a change of inertial state is observed, the automatic and justifiable assumption is the cause of that change of inertial state is a force of some kind.

The Inertial Reference Frame [IRF]

An inertial reference frame [IRF] is an inertial state of objects/events comprised of matter/energy [m/e] either at rest or moving uniformly.

An IRF is governed by the velocity [speed and direction] of the objects/events comprised of matter/energy within it.

Objects/events within an IRF retain their inertial states until acted upon by a force which either accelerates or decelerates them.

When objects/events are accelerated or decelerated they change IRFs.

Thus, inre IRFs, forces—pushes or pulls—cause accelerations/decelerations of objects which cause changes of the object's inertial states and therefore changes of their IRFs.

Of the two components of velocity, the speed of an object's motion is more important than the direction of the object's motion, because all objects which are traveling at the same speed regardless of direction can be said to be in the same reference frame; thus all identical rulers and all identical clocks designed and built in an original reference frame which are accelerated or decelerated to the same speed regardless of direction will remain relatively identical, i.e., all rulers traveling at the same speed will have the same length, and all clocks traveling at the same speed will have the same rate of ticking. In this regard, there is a mathematical relationship between speed and length and time.

The Three Dimensions of Physics

Because physics requires observation of people/objects/events, observation requires measurement, and measurement requires units of measurements, which are the standards by which measurements are made.

Krauss, Lawrence M., Fear of Physics, Basic Books, Harper-Collins, 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY 10022-5299, 1993, pp. 36-37.

[The] dimension of a quantity ... is what connects numbers in physics with the real world of phenomena.

[The fact which is] probably most responsible for simplifying physics is a fascinating property of the world. There are only three kinds of fundamental dimensional qualities in nature: length, time, and mass. Everything, all physical quantities, can be expressed in terms of some combination of these units. [Italics in original]

Because there are just three kinds of dimensional quantities, there are a limited number of independent combinations of these quantities [which can be devised]. That means that every physical quantity is related to every other physical quantity in some simple way, and it strongly limits the number of different mathematical relationships that are possible in physics. There is probably no more important tool used by physicists than the use of dimensions to characterize physical observables. ... [Using] dimensional analysis gives ... a fundamental perspective of the world, which gives a sensible basis for interpreting the information obtained by [our] senses or by other measurements. It provides the ultimate approximation: When we picture things, we picture their dimensions.

Thus, there are three basic dimensions in physics: (1) length; (2) time; (3) mass.

The Concept of Length

A length is a distance between two objects/events existing within space.

A length is measured by a unit of measurement which is a distance, a space-interval [SI].

The essence of length is the distance/SI chosen as a unit of measurement.

A distance chosen to be a unit of measurement of length can be any naturally occurring distance/SI.

Once the distance/SI to be used as a unit of measurement of length is chosen, it becomes abstract, and therefore independent of its original model—its original naturally occurring distance/SI.

If the original model is destroyed, the distance/SI chosen to be the unit of measurement of length is not destroyed, and can be made concrete by itncoporating it into a measuring device, such as a foot ruler or yardstick.

A length is used to define/specify the radius/diameter of a volume, a space whose size is defined/specified by the radius/diameter measured by the unit of length incorporated into a measuring device such as a foot ruler or yardstick.

A chosen/specified length/SI can be used to specify and thereby define terms relevent to volume such as small and large.

[See The Operational Physics Theory of Space [OpPhys ToS]]

The Concept of Time

Time is the use of durations called time-intervals for units of measurement for the measurement and prediction of the occurrences of events.

The essence of time is the time-interval [TI]—the duration chosen to be the unit of measurement of time, therefore time is the measurement of the occurrences of events.

[See The Operational Physics Theory of Time [OpPhys ToT]]

The Concept of Mass

Mass = Resistance to a change of inertial state.

Accelerations are forces—pushes or pulls—which will cause a change of inertial state which will be an increase in an accelerated organism's/objects'/event's inertial mass [IM] or kinetic mass [KM].

Decelerations are forces—pushes or pulls—which will cause a change of inertial state which will be a decrease in a decelerated organism's/object's/event's IM/KM

With a change of inertial state of an organism's/object's/event's IM/KM, there will a change of the resistance to a change of inertial state of any organs/parts/stuffs of accelerated/decelerated objects/events comprised of m/e.

Mass and volume are interrelated.

When m/e is present, the ratio of the total amount of m/e within a volume to the radius/diameter of the volume gives a specification for the definitions of mass density.

[See The Operational Physics Theory of Physics—Matter/Energy [OpPhys ToP]]

The Operational Physics Theory of Space [OpPhys ToS]

Space is the volume of infinite radius/diameter which is the location within which exist the temporal reality/time and the physical reality/physics [m/e].

The unit of measurement of the spatial reality/space is a length, a distance, a space-interval [SI].

Space can be conceptualized/intuited as a volume by the principle of extrapolation.

Any finite volume—any volume of a finite radius/diameter x—can be observed/intuited to be surrounded by a larger volume having the same center and the radius/diameter x + n, where n is a number in a series of lengths.

The concept of a finite volume of x + n can be extrapolated out to increasingly larger finite volumes, and all these finite volumes can be intuited as ultimately being surrounded by an infinite volume of i—the i-volume—where i is a radius/diameter of infinite length.

Thus any finite x-volume can be surrounded by the infinite i-volume.

The fact that a finite x-volume can be surrounded by the infinite i-volume can be conceptualized by the expression x + i.

The expression x + i describes the extrapolated concept/principle that the volume which is space/the spatial reality has an infinite radius/diameter, i, and will always surround a volume of finite radius/diameter, x.

Physical phenomena are theoretically occurring in quantums—small packets of forces.

Each quantum has a finite volume, x.

Each quantum can therefore be surrounded by the infinite i-volume.

There therefore exists space between the finite x-volumes of quantums.

This space is therefore a pure vacuum.

Because there is an observed quantity of space between objects within an atom, and this space is considerably larger than the combined volumes of all the subatomic particles within an atom, then, by the extrapolation principle, the infinite i-volume of space is larger than/greater than the total volume of all combined finite quantum x-volumes.

Thus, the infinite i-volume which is space—the spatial reality—is a pure vacuum except for those areas in which exist objects/events comprised of quantums of m/e.

Space—the spatial reality—has an infinite duration. Space has always existed, exists now, and will always exist in the future.

objects/events comprised of m/e can be contracted or expanded.

A pure vacuum of infinite radius/diameter cannot be contracted nor expanded.

Space cannot be contracted nor expanded because it is truly a volume—the infinite i-volume—which is a pure vacuum—is not comprised of m/e—and which has no physical or mathematical limits.

The concept of duration is linked to the concept of time—the temporal reality.

Thus, space, being of infinite duration, is infinite in existence in the temporal reality/time.

The Operational Physics Theory of Time [OpPhys ToT]

Time is the use of a duration called a time-interval [TI] as a unit of measurement for the measurement and prediction of the occurrences of events.

The unit of measurement of the temporal reality/time is a duration, called a time-interval [TI].

The essence of time is the time-interval [TI].

Any duration can be chosen for a TI.

A duration can be modeled after a naturally occurring periodic motion, such as the orbit of the Earth about the Sun, which gives us our sidereal [sun-derived] durations of a year, a day, an hour, a minute, a second, etc.

Once a duration for a TI is chosen, it becomes abstract—divorced from its original model.

Regardless of what happens to the original model for a duration chosen for a TI, the duration/TI becomes abstract and therefore totally independent of its original model.

The duration/TI becomes concrete/non-abstract when it is incorporated into the design of a clock.

If a clock is destroyed, time is not destroyed.

A clock only uses its TI as a unit of measurement for the measurement of the occurrences of events. If a clock is destroyed, the events will continue to occur, therefore, time is not destroyed. Time inre the occurrences of continuing events can be measured by another fully functional clock.

Accelerations and decelerations will cause a change of the inertial state of clocks as well as other objects/events comprised of matter/energy [m/e].

Accelerations/decelerations will cause a change of inertial state of the inertial mass [IM]—kinetic mass [KM]—of accelerated/decelerated objects/events comprised of m/e.

Mass = Resistance to a change of inertial state.

Accelerations will cause an increase in an accelerated organism's/objects'/event's IM/KM.

Decelerations will cause a decrease in a decelerated organism's/object's/event's IM/KM

With a change of inertial state of an organism's/object's/event's IM/KM, there will a change of the resistance to a change of inertial state of any organs/parts/stuffs of accelerated/decelerated objects/events comprised of m/e.

Time is not a causal process.

In general, at scalar levels above subatomic/QM levels, the measurement of the occurrences of events does not cause a change of inertial states of the objects/events comprised of m/e who/which are being measured. At subatomic/QM scalar levels, in theory, the quanta used for measuring the occurrences of events [in particular, the objects relevant to the events which are being measured] will cause a change of inertial state of the objects—the subatomic particles.

Because at scalar levels above subatomic/QM levels, time defined as the measurement and prediction of the occurrences of events by the use of durations/TIs does not cause a change of inertial states of the objects/events being measured, there is no causality, and without causality, time cannot be a causal process.

Therefore, time does not cause time-dilation.

Time-dilation is caused by the physical/causal processes of accelerations/decelerations which change the inertial states of the objects/events being accelerated/decelerated.

A time-interval can be used to generate timepoints [T0—Timepoint of Origin, T-1—Timepoint before T0, T+1—Timepoint after T0, etc.].

A sequence of timepoints generates a timemap, a timeline, a temporal history, or description, of a sequence of events.

The Continuum of Time

Infinity Past <- ... <- T-2 <- T-1 <- T0 -> T+1 -> T+2 ... -> Future Infinity

There are two time-intervals:

1. The Variable Time-Interval [VTI]
2. The Invariable Time-Interval [ITI]

The variable time-interval/VTI is found in a clock whose rate of operation [RoO] or rate of ticking [RoT] varies with accelerations and decelerations and the RoO/RoT is not adjusted/compensated to negate the effects of accelerations/decelerations.

The invariable time-interval/ITI is found in a clock whose rate of operation [RoO] or rate of ticking [RoT] varies with accelerations and decelerations but the RoO/RoT is adjusted/compensated to negate the effects of accelerations/decelerations.

There are thus two types of clocks:

1. The Variable Time-Interval Clock [VTIC]
2. The Invariable Time-Interval Clock [ITIC]

There are two types of invariable time-interval clocks/ITICs:

1. The Motion-Sensing and Self-Adjusting Invariable Time-Interval Clock [MSSAITIC]
2. The Master Invariable Time-Interval Clock [MITIC] which by radio signals controls the time-intervals of a Slave Invariable Time-Interval Clock [SITIC]

Variable time-interval clocks measure local time [LT], time within a specific inertial reference frame [IRF].

Invariable time-interval clocks measure absolute time [AT]—also called universal time [UT]—the same time throughout the universe, time in any IRFs.

When an ITI is chosen and designed into identical ITICs, whenever the RoOs/RoTs of the ITICs are adjusted to compensate for the effects of causes of changes of inertial states and inertial reference frames such as accelerations/decelerations, then the RoOs/RoTs of the ITICs will remain the same as non-accelerated/non-decelerated ITICs and the ITICs will measure AT/UT.

The US GPS and Russian GLONASS satellite navigation systems use MITICs on the Earth/ground to control SITICs in satellites.

The existence of MITICs <-> SITICs in the US GPS/Russian GLONASS nav systems confirms the existence/reality of ITICs and therefore ITIs and therefore AT/UT [Absolute Time/Universal Time].

http://www.bobkwebsite.com/cnfrmtnofTITI.html

The Special and General Theories of Relativity were developed using VTIs in VTICs as the definition of time.

ITIs in ITICs have been proven to exist/be realities, and, therefore, must be included in any theory of physics which uses a concept of time.

The Special and General Theories of Relativity will have to be modified to incorporate ITIs/ITICs along with VTIs/VTICs. Observers external to inertial reference frames will observe VTIs in VTICs within an inertial reference frame [IRF] to measure local time [LT] within the IRF and those observers will also observe ITIs in ITICs to measure absolute/universal time [AT/UT] in each and every IRF.

Time is a process by which events in sequences of events can be related to each other by being measured by a time-interval and thereby being assigned a timepoint or a series of timepoints at which/during which the events occurred.

Time is therefore not a causal process. Time is not a cause of changes of the inertial states of objects/events.

Time is of infinite duration within the spatial reality/space.

The Operational Physics Theory of Physics—Matter/Energy [OpPhys ToP]

The physical reality—physics—is the matter/energy which comprises all objects/events.

From the fields of thermodynamics (the study of heat) and chemistry, thermodynamicists and chemists have observed conservation laws:

• The Law of the Conservation of Energy
• The Law of the Conservation of Matter
• The Law of the Conservation of Electric charge
• The Law of the Conservation of Momentum

The law of the conservation of energy describes the observed fact that in any physical event energy is neither created nor destroyed but is conserved, with the same total amount of energy beginning before the event, continuing during the event, and remaining after the event.

The law of the conservation of matter describes the observed fact that in any physical event matter is neither created nor destroyed but is conserved, with the same total amount of matter beginning before the event, continuing during the event, and remaining after the event.

Albert Einstein described the conservation of matter/energy in these equations:

e = mc2
m = e/c2

where
e = energy
m = mass/matter
c = the speed of light/SOL/186,000 mps
c2 = the speed of light squared

A closed or isolated matter/energy system [m/e system or MES] is a system to which m/e cannot be added (where would the additional m/e come from?) and from which m/e cannot be removed (where would the removed m/e go?).

A closed matter/energy [m/e] system has the following characteristics:

1. M/E cannot be added (where would the additional m/e come from?).
2. M/E cannot be removed (where would the removed m/e go?).
3. The total m/e is a constant (because no m/e can be added/removed).
4. The m/e can be changed in form [m->e {m = e/c2} or e->m {e = mc2}] but never destroyed (where would the destroyed m/e go?), therefore the m/e is indestructible/conserved.

The matter/energy of the universe—the universal m/e system or UMES—is a closed/isolated m/e system because m/e cannot be added to it (where would the additional m/e come from?) and m/e cannot be removed from it (where would the removed m/e go?).

The sum total of the universal m/e is a constant.

The m/e of the universe is a closed m/e system because it has the following characteristics:

1. M/E cannot be added (where would the additional m/e come from?).
2. M/E cannot be removed (where would the removed m/e go?).
3. The total of the universal m/e is a constant (because no m/e can be added/removed).
4. The m/e can be changed in form [m->e {m = e/c2} or e->m {e = mc2}] but never destroyed (where would the destroyed m/e go?), therefore the m/e is indestructible/conserved.

The volume of the universal m/e is less than the infinite i-volume of space/the spatial reality.

The m/e of the universe is expressed in quanta [quantums].

Each quantum has a finite x-volume.

If not all quanta are not 100% contiguous with other quanta (if most if not all quanta are not completely surrounded and touched by other quanta, e.g. if the surfaces of most if not all quanta within a chosen space are not 100% contiguous), then there is space between non-contiguous quanta).

If a quantum is not 100% contiguous with other quanta, then those parts of the quantum which are not contiguous are exposed to space.

Each quantum's finite x-volume is surrounded by the infinite i-volume of space.

The space which surrounds a quantum is a pure vacuum (what other quanta can be present in the space that surrounds individual quanta?).

Most of the volume of an atom is space within which the total volume of the m/e which consists of the atom's subatomic particles is only a small portion of the atom's total volume.

The volume of all quanta in the universe is an x-volume which is less than the infinite i-volume: i > x

The universal m/e is infinite in duration—existing infinitely within the spatial reality/space and the temporal reality/time.

The universal m/e—the physical reality/physics—was never created, exists now, will always exist in the future, and predates any Bangs and postdates any Crunches.

The Speed of Light

One of the fundamental concepts/principles of physics is the speed of light in vacuo, which means, literally, the speed of light in a pure vacuum, in a volume in which there exists no medium through which light must pass and which would thereby impede the speed of light.

The speed of light in vacuo is 186,000 mps [miles per second].

The speed of light in vacuo is often given the designation c, and the abbreviation SOL.

When light is traveling in vacuo at c, it goes past the center of mass of any object at c if that object is not moving, is at rest, with a velocity of 0 mps.

A critical concept herein is center of mass [CoM]. This concept of the center of mass/CoM reduces the length over which a lightray may travel within a spacehip's interior to zero length at precisely the center point of the spaceship's mass. When the concept of the CoM = 0 length is used and the principle that a lightray (photon) could 'go past' a CoM is applied, then the problem of defining speed as distance/rate is eliminated; inre the CoM = 0, there is no distance which can shorten with acceleration or lengthen with deceleration.

For the following Spaceship Diagrams, simultaneity is operationally defined two or more events occurring at or during the same/identical timepoint.

For events to occur at the same timepoint, that timepoint must occur on identical timelines/timemaps.

For an event to occur at the same timepoint on identical timelines/timemaps the clocks whose time-intervals/units of measurement must tick at a constant rate of ticking and thereby must have the same/identical time-interval which generates identical timepoints which generate identical timelines/timemaps.

In the following Spaceship Diagrams, the strikes of Lightrays A and B and C will occur in different locations/positions on the face of Target, therefore the clocks which are to be used for determining (detecting/observing) the simultaneity of Lightray strikes in different locations/positions on Target's face must all have the same time-interval/unit of measurement which generates identical timepoints on identical timelines/timemaps so Timepoint 1 on the clock detecting/observing Lightray A = Timepoint 1 on the clock detecting/observing Lightray B  = Timepoint 1 on the clock detecting/observing Lightray C, i.e., all clocks on Target's face used for determining (detecting/observing) simultaneity of the Lightrays on Target's face must be of identical design/construction/operation/functioning/ticking.

For the following Spaceship Diagrams, the observers are specified to be ...
1. Observers on Target observing Lightray strikes on identical clocks which have identical time-intervals which generate identical rates of ticking (all clocks 'go at the same rate') which generate identical timepoints which generate identical timelines/timemaps wherein Timepoint 1 = Timepoint 2, etc., on any timeline/timemap and therefore simultaneity is defined as two or more events (Lightray strikes) occurring at or during the same Timepoint.
2. Observers aboard Spaceship.
For the following Spaceship Diagrams, the Laws of Logic, wherein A = A (A Equals A: The Law of Identity) and A ≠ B (A Is Not Equal To B: The Law of Non-Identity/Uniqueness) Apply::
1. Lightray A = Lightray A: There is one and only one Lightray A.
2. Lightray B = Lightray B: There is one and only one Lightray B.
3. Lightray A ≠ Lightray B: Lightray A is not identical to Lightray B.
4. Lightray A ≠ Lightray B ≠ Lightray C: Lightray A is not identical to Lightray A or Lightray C; Lightray B is not identical to Lightray A or Lightray C; Lightray C is not identical to Lightray A or Lightray B.
In Spaceship Diagram 1:
1. Lightray A is traveling past Spaceship's CoM at c in a left-to-right direction and parallel to Lightray B.
2. Lightray B is traveling past Spaceship's CoM at c in a right-to-left direction and parallel to Lightray A.
3. Spaceship is at rest/not in motion relative to Lightray A and Lightray B; Spaceship is at rest with velocity = 0 mps.

Spaceship Diagram 1

Only in this set of physical conditions wherein Spaceship is at rest relative to the Lightrays will the Lightrays actually flash past/go past Spaceship's CoM at c.

Observers on Spaceship would observe Lightray A to 'go past' Spaceship's CoM at c and Lightray B to 'go past' Spaceship's CoM at c.

Note that in Spaceship Diagram 1 Spaceship is at rest/not in motion relative to Lightrays A and B and is therefore in an initial inertial reference frame K.

If Spaceship were to be accelerated, then its velocity would increase from 0 mps to v mps and when the acceleration forces cease and Spaceship's velocity stabilizes at v then Spaceship would be in a new inertial reference frame K.'

In Spaceship Diagram 2:
1. Lightray A is traveling past Spaceship's CoM at c and in a left-to-right direction and parallel to Lightray B and Spaceship's spacepath.
2. Lightray B is traveling past Spaceship's CoM at c and in a right-to-left direction and parallel to Lightray A and Spaceship's spacepath.
3. Spaceship is moving in uniform motion in a left-to-right direction parallel to Lightrays A and B and at a velocity v relative to Lightray A and Lightray B.

Spaceship Diagram 2

In this set of physical conditions, Spaceship is not at rest/not in inertial reference frame K but instead is moving at velocity v in inertial reference frame K' relative to Lightrays A and B which continue to travel at c in vacuo.

Spaceship has changed its inertial reference frame from K to K' but Lightrays A and B, because they have not changed velocities because they have not been accelerated/decelerated, have not changed their inertial reference frame, which continues to be K.

Lightrays A and B have not changed; they are moving through space in vacuo at c relative to themselves and the vacuo but relative to Spaceship/Spaceship's CoM Lightray A is moving at c-v and Lightray B is moving a c+v.

Observers aboard Spaceship would observe Lightray A to 'go past' Spaceship's CoM at c in the left-to-right direction and Lightray B to 'go past' Spaceship's CoM at c in the right-to-left direction.

Because Spaceship is moving relative to Lightrays A and B, it is not possible for the actual SOL values of Lightrays A and B when they are 'going past' Spaceship's CoM to be c relative to the CoM.

When Lightray A is moving at c parallel to and in the same direction of the motion of Spaceship and Spaceship is moving at v, then Lightray A's velocity 'going past' Spaceship's CoM has to be c-v; when Lightray B is moving at c parallel to but opposite the direction of Spaceship's motion and Spaceship is moving at v, then Lightray B's velocity 'going past' Spaceship's CoM has to be c+v.

Neither Lightray A nor Lightray B exceed c; their approach and departure velocities relative to 'going past' Spaceship's CoM can be less than or more than c without the velocity of either Lightray A or Lightray B in vacuo changing from c.

When Spaceship and its observers and clocks have been accelerated/decelerated and the acceleration/deceleration forces have ceased, then Spaceship and its observers and clocks will be traveling at a constant velocity--a constant uniform motion, a non-rotating motion in a straight line--and will be in a different inertial reference frame K' than its initial inertial reference frame K.

When observers and clocks are accelerated/decelerated out of one initial inertial reference frame K and into a second different inertial reference frame K' the acceleration/deceleration forces and resulting new velocities will have caused changes of the observers' rates of operation/functioning/perception and the clock's rates of ticking to change.

These changes of rates of operation/functioning/perception/ticking are inversely related to accelerations/decelerations and resulting higher/lower velocities.

Acceleration forces as causes cause the effects of resulting faster/higher velocities which will cause slower/lower rates of operation/functioning/perception/ticking of accelerated observers and clocks; deceleration forces as causes cause the effects of resulting slower/lower velocities which will cause faster/higher rates of operation/functioning/perception/ticking of decelerated observers and clocks.

Accelerated/faster observers/clocks and decelerated/slower observers/clocks in a new inertial reference frame K' whose rates of operation/functioning/perception/ticking have changed will not observe/measure unaccelerated/undecelerated and therefore unchanged physical phenomena with the same/unchanged units of measurements as found in the initial inertial reference frame K, and, therefore, both moving observers and moving clocks in K' will suffer the moving observers' illusion, or MOI.

To observe the true value of the approach/departure values of Lightrays A and B when they 'go past' Spaceship's CoM when Spaceship is moving and therefore in inertial reference frame K' it is necessary to avoid the MOI by using observers not aboard Spaceship and who therefore are not in inertial reference frame K'.

In Spaceship Diagram 3:
1. Lightsource emits both Lightray A and Lightray B.
2. Lightsource emits Lightray A simultaneously with Lightray B in a left-to-right direction.
3. Lightrays A and B travel at c in straight lines parallel to each other and Spaceship's direction of motion and perpendicular to Target's face.
4. Lightsource's velocity is irrelevant because its velocity cannot and therefore does not affect/change the velocity of Lightrays A or B; if Lightsource is moving it is moving parallel to Lightrays A and B and Spaceship's direction of motion and perpendicular to Target's face.
5. Target's motion is irrelevant because Lightrays A and B would strike its face simultaneously provided that its face was perpendicular to the pathways of Lightrays A and B.
6. To simplify the diagram, Lightsource and Target are in the same inertial reference frame [IRF], K; Spaceship, however, is not in the IRF K of Lightsource and Target, but, instead, is in a different IRF, K'.
7. Spaceship travels in a straight line at velocity v in a left-to-right direction away from Lightsource and towards Target and parallel to Lightray A and Lightray B and perpendicular to Target's face and Lightsource's face.
8. Lightray B passes through Spaceship with no medium effects (Spaceship's interior is a pure vacuum).

Spaceship Diagram 3

In theory, Lightray A should strike Target simultaneously with Lightray B; observers on Target should observe Lightrays A and B strike Target simultaneously.

If Lightray B were accelerated so that instead of 'going past' Spaceship's CoM/center of mass at the true value of c-v Lightray B 'goes past' Spaceship's CoM at c, then, during the duration of its existence within the interior of Spaceship, Lightray B would have to be accelerated and would exit Spaceship ahead of Lightray A and would therefore, ultimately, strike Target ahead of/before Lightray A strikes Target; observers on Target should observe Lightray B to strike Target ahead of/before Lightray A. This claim would require Lightray B to travel at a superluminal speed, at a speed faster than c/SOL, which, in theory, is not possible.

Lightray B does not strike Target ahead of/before Lightray A; instead, Lightray B strikes target simultaneously with Lightray A; observers on Target observe Lightrays A and B to strike Target simultaneously/together/at the same timepoint.

Lightray B therefore passes through Spaceship's interior and 'goes past' Spaceship's CoM at c-v.

This example of proof that where SOL = c/186,000 mps in vacuo, the SOL = c phenomenon occurs relative to a ground or floor or an ocean of space.

In Spaceship Diagram 4:
1. Lightsource is emits both Lightray A and Lightray B.
2. Lightsource emits Lightray A simultaneously with Lightray B in a left-to-right direction.
3. Lightrays A and B travel at c in straight lines parallel to each other and Spaceship's direction of motion and perpendicular to Target's face.
4. Lightsource's velocity is irrelevant because its velocity cannot and therefore does not affect/change the velocity of Lightrays A or B; if Lightsource is moving it is moving parallel to Lightrays A and B and Spaceship's direction of motion and perpendicular to Target's face.
5. Target's motion is irrelevant because Lightrays A and B would strike its face simultaneously provided that its face was perpendicular to the pathways of Lightrays A and B.
6. To simplify the diagram, Lightsource and Target are in the same inertial reference frame [IRF], K; Spaceship, however, is not in the IRF K of Lightsource and Target, but, instead, is in a different IRF, K'.
7. Spaceship travels in a straight line at velocity v in a right-to-left direction towards Lightsource and away from Target and parallel to Lightray A and Lightray B and perpendicular to Target's face and Lightsource's face.
8. Lightray B passes through Spaceship with no medium effects (Spaceship's interior is a pure vacuum)

Spaceship Diagram 4

Lightray B would now pass through Spaceship's interior and 'go past' Spaceship's CoM at c + v. If it passed through Spaceship's interior and 'went past' Spaceship's CoM at a true c, then, because Spaceship is moving against/opposite Lightray B's pathway, Lightray B would have to be decelerated while in Spaceship's interior and would therefore strike Target after/behind Lightray A.

In Spaceship Diagram 5:
1. Lightsource is emits both Lightray A and Lightray B.
2. Lightsource emits Lightray A simultaneously with Lightray B in a left-to-right direction.
3. Lightrays A and B travel at c in straight lines parallel to each other and Spaceship's direction of motion and perpendicular to Target's face.
4. Lightsource's velocity is irrelevant because its velocity cannot and therefore does not affect/change the velocity of Lightrays A or B; if Lightsource is moving it is moving parallel to Lightrays A and B and Spaceship's direction of motion and perpendicular to Target's face.
5. Target's motion is irrelevant because Lightrays A and B would strike its face simultaneously provided that its face was perpendicular to the pathways of Lightrays A and B.
6. To simplify the diagram, Lightsource and Target are in the same inertial reference frame [IRF], K; Spaceship, however, is not in the IRF K of Lightsource and Target, but, instead, is in a different IRF, K'.
7. Spaceship travels in a straight line at velocity v in a left-to-right direction away from Lightsource and towards Target and parallel to Lightray A and Lightray B and perpendicular to Target's face and Lightsource's face.
8. Lightray B passes through Spaceship with no medium effects (Spaceship's interior is a pure vacuum).
9. Lightray B triggers a Lightsource within Spaceship's interior and at Spaceship's CoM to emit Lightray C in a left-to-right direction parallel to Lightrays A and B and parallel to Spaceship's pathway and perpendicular to Target's face and Lightsource's face.

Spaceship Diagram 5

Lightray B would now travel through Spaceship's interior and 'go past' Spaceship's CoM at c-v and yet would keep pace with Lightray A and would strike Target simultaneously with Lightray A; obervers on Target would observe Lightrays A and B to strike Target simultaneously.

Lightray C would be triggered by Lightray B and would keep pace with both Lightray B and Lightray A, and it would strike Target simultaneously with Lightrays A and B; observers on Target would observe Lightrays A, B and C to strike Target simultaneously.

Spaceship's velocity, v, would not be added to Lightray C.

Conclusion: The speed of light is c/SOL in vacuo in the pure vacuum of deep space in which no other forces are present to cause changes of the inertial state of a light photon. This SOL is not added to nor subtracted from the velocity of a Spaceship moving uniformly through space.

The SOL as a Limiting Velocity

The speed of light/SOL is supposedly/theoretically a limiting velocity: No objects/events comprised of m/e can travel faster than the SOL.

In theory, when the velocity of an object/event approaches the SOL, the inertial/kinetic mass of the object/event approaches infinity, and an accelerative or decelerative force cannot move a mass of infinite massiveness.

An Alternative Explanation of Why the SOL Is a Limiting Velocity

A force is a push or a pull.

A change of inertial state is caused by a force; a force is the cause of a change of inertial state.

An acceleration or deceleration is a change of inertial state.

An acceleration is caused by a force.

If the velocity of the m/e of an accelerative force cannot exceed the SOL, then, when an object/event comprised of m/e is traveling at the SOL, there will be no reactive differential between the object/event and the accelerative force, and the accelerative force therefore cannot push against and thereby accelerate the object/event.

This statement relies upon the principle that for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction.

When (1) the velocity of an object/event is less than the SOL, and (2A) the velocity of m/e of an accelerative force pushing/pulling the object/event is traveling opposite the direction of the object/event and (2B) is greater than the velocity of the object/event, then there will be a reactive differential which will cause the object/event to be accelerated.

If a rocket motor is attached to the stern of a spaceship and the blast of the rocket motor's m/e exiting in a direction opposite the direction of travel of the spaceship does not have a greater velocity than the velocity of the spaceship, then there cannot be and will not be an accelerative force applied to the spaceship and the spaceship will not accelerate.

Intuit a burning of rocket fuel inside a rocket motor as an explosion in which m/e travels equally in all directions. M/e travels left and right and up and down and forwards and backwards equally.

If a spaceship is traveling to the left and part of the the m/e blast from the rocket motor is traveling right, then the m/e traveling left will attempt to push against the spaceship and cause it to accelerate to the left.

This phenomenon can only occur when the velocity of the spaceship traveling left is less than the velocity of the rocket motor's m/e which is also traveling left.

If the leftward velocity of the spaceship is c/SOL, then the leftward traveling m/e of the rocket motor, being limited by the SOL, cannot catch up to and push against and thereby accelerate the spaceship.

If the accelerative force of a rocket motor is applied at 90º to the direction of travel of a spaceship traveling uniformly at c/SOL, then, because there is no force causing a change of the spaceship's inertial state and therefore its direction, the accelerative force is the only force causing a change of the spaceship's direction, and, therefore, the force will cause a change of the spaceship's inertial state and its direction.

This phenomenon will occur despite the mantra that the inertial mass of a spaceship traveling at c/SOL is theoretically infinite, and the inertial state of the infinite mass of the spaceship cannot be changed.

Similarly, a force applied opposite the direction of travel of a spaceship by a rocket motor in front of the spaceship will cause a deceleration of the spaceship despite the spaceship's theoretical infinite inertial mass.

The velocity of the rocket motor's m/e traveling opposite the direction of travel of the spaceship will cause a reactive differential in the form of a force—a push—against the spaceship and the spaceship will decelerate despite its theoretically infinite kinetic/inertial mass.

These considerations suggest the possibility that the kinetic/inertial mass of an object/event such as a spaceship traveling uniformly at c/SOL is not infinite, and if a rocket motor could be designed/constructed so its m/e blast could exceed the c/SOL and therefore the velocity of the spaceship, then the spaceship could be accelerated beyond c—the SOL.

The Absolute Rest Reference Frame [ARRF]

When a light photon in vacuo moves past the CoM of any object at a true c, then that object is at rest relative to the light photon.

When an object is at rest relative to a light photon, when a light photon 'goes past' the organism's/object's CoM at a true velocity of c, then the object is at rest in the absolute rest reference frame [ARRF], as when at rest in the ARRF, an object is therefore at absolute rest [AR] with an absolute velocity [AV] of 0. [AV = 0.]

We now have the intuition that produces the concept of the ARRF and the principle that the ARRF is observable when light goes past an organism's/object's CoM at c.

We can note that the ARRF is completely independent of any and all other organisms/objects within space including any and all astronomical stuffs, gravitational fields, etc.

Absolute Velocity [AV]

The concept of the absolute rest reference frame [ARRF] and the inertial state of absolute rest [AR] are the bases of the concept of absolute velocity [AV].

AV would be any speed between AR in the ARRF in which AV = 0 and AV = c/SOL/186,000 mps.

The Cosmic Speedometer

The concept/principle of the ARRF gives us the concept/principle of the inertial state of AR at AV = 0 and one end of a cosmic speedometer whose speed range is AV = 0 at AR in the ARRF to the speedometer's other end which is AV = c/SOL/186,000 mps max for organisms/objects/events comprised of matter/energy [m/e]--under the theory that no organisms/objects/events comprised of m/e can travel faster than c/SOL/186,000 mps.

AV = 0 mps [at AR in the ARRF] <-----> AV = 186,000 mps

Whether or not organisms/objects/events comprised of m/e can travel at superluminal speeds [velocities] is a question which physicists must answer, but for the purposes of this description of a cosmic speedometer it will be temporarily assumed to be true.

The Universe

The Universe is comprised of all reality.

Universe = All Reality

The universe is comprised of three realities:

1. The Spatial Reality—Space
2. The Temporal Reality—Time
3. The Physical Reality—Physics [Matter/Energy]

The Spatial Reality—Space

Space is the volume of infinite radius/diameter which is the location within which exist the temporal reality/time and the physical reality/physics [m/e].

The unit of measurement of the spatial reality/space is a length.

Space—the spatial reality—has an infinite duration. Space has always existed, exists now, and will always exist in the future.

Thus, space, being of infinite duration, is infinite in existence in the temporal reality/time.

The Temporal Reality—Time

Time is the use of a duration called a time-interval [TI] as a unit of measurement for the measurement and prediction of the occurrences of events.

Time is a process—the temporal process—by which events in sequences of events can be related to each other by being measured by a time-interval and thereby being assigned a timepoint or a series of timepoints at which/during which the events occurred.

Time as a temporal process is therefore not a causal process. Time is not a cause of changes of the inertial states of organisms/objects/events.

Time is of infinite duration within the spatial reality/space.

The Continuum of Time

Past Infinity <- ... <- T-2 <- T-1 <- T0 -> T+1 -> T+2 ... -> Infinity Future

The Continuum of Time shows that time/the temporal reality/the temporal process is of infinite duration without a beginning and without an ending.

Time/the temporal reality/the temporal process is independent of the spatial reality/space and the physical reality/physics [matter/energy—m/e].

The Physical Reality—Physics [The Matter/Energy Which Comprises Organisms/Objects/Events]

The physical reality—physics—is the matter/energy which comprises all organisms/objects/events.

The universal m/e is infinite in duration—existing infinitely within the spatial reality/space and the temporal reality/time.

The universal m/e—the physical reality/physics—was never created, exists now, will always exist in the future, and predates any Bangs and postdates any Crunches.

The Linkage of Space, Time and Physics (M/E)

Space is the place within which exist time and physics.

At each timepoint on the Continuum of Time there is within space a specific configuration of physics--a specific configuration of the universal m/e that is physics.

 Past Infinity <- ... <- T-2 <- T-1 <- TO (Origin) -> T+1 -> T+2 -> ... -> Infinity Future Past M/E Configs <- ... <- M/E Config -2 <- M/E Config -1 <- M/E Config 0 (Now) -> M/E Config +1 -> M/E Config +2 -> ... -> Future M/E Configs

As a clock, preferrably an ITIC, measures time, preferrably AT/UT, there is a one-and-only m/e configuration at each timepoint; as the measurement of time continues--always in a forward direction from the past through the present into the future, the m/e configuration of the T0/Origin Timepoint (Present Moment) changes from past me/ configurations through the present m/e configuration into future m/e configurations.

Time travel is not possible because the m/e configurations at past and future Timepoints do not exist--only the present m/e configuration exists at Timepont 0.

No one can travel to a past or future m/e configuration that does not exist.

Comments: The Universe Has Always Existed

When the three realities of the universe are considered to comprise the universe, the infinite durations of space, time and physics proves that the universe was never created, has existed in the past, exists now, and will exist in the future.

Comments: There Is One And Only One Universe

The term universe traditionally has meant all reality, and, where the universe has been shown to be a closed/isolated m/e system to which m/e cannot be added nor removed and in which the sum total of m/e is a constant, the concepts of parallel universes and multiple universes are not acceptable because the m/e of all reality must fit within the one-and-only universe, therefore there can be no additional universes (no additional m/e external to the one-and-only universe).

The Philosophical Concepts and Principles of Physics Changed by the TITI

With the confirmation of the TITI/The Theory of Invariable Time-Intervals the philosophical concepts/principles of absolute time (AT)/universal time (UT), absolute space (AS), absolute rest (AR), the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF), absolute motion (AM), and simultaneity will be definable/specifiable and therefore established as realities.

Absolute Rest (AR), the Absolute Rest Reference Frame (ARRF), and Absolute Motion (AM)

If a VTIC is linked to an ITIC, in what will be referred to as a VTIC/ITIC combo, and while Earth-bound/non-accelerated (non-decelerated) the TIs are synchronized, so VTI = ITI, the VTIC/ITIC combo produces a clock mechanism which can be used to detect absolute rest (AR), the absolute rest reference frame (ARRF), and absolute motion (AM).

If the spacecraft containing a VTIC/ITIC combo is launched into space, and, disregarding the effects of gravity, a force is applied 180 degrees opposite the direction of motion of the spacecraft, the spacecraft with the VTIC/ITIC combo will decelerate, its velocity (speed and direction) will become temporarily zero (no motion = no speed and no direction), hence its AM will be zero, it will be at AR, and it will have entered the ARRF, and if the force is continued, then the spacecraft will accelerate in the direction 180 degrees opposite its original direction.

During these transition phases, the RoO of the VTIC in the VTIC/ITIC combo will change from its original non-accelerated (non-decelerated) RoO in the Earth's reference frame to a maximum RoO at AR in the ARRF when its AM is zero while the RoO of the ITIC will remain constant.

Thus, the maximum RoO of any machine or organism will be achieved at AM = zero at AR in the ARRF.

Observers on the Earth will observe the RoO of the VTIC to increase with deceleration to a maximum and then to decrease with acceleration in the opposite direction while the RoO of the ITIC remains constant.

Observers on the spacecraft, whose RoOs will vary directly with the RoO of the VTIC, will observe the RoO of the VTIC to remain constant while the RoO of the ITIC will increase with acceleration to a maximum at AM = zero at AR in the ARRF and then to decrease with acceleration in the opposite direction.

We know that the RoO of any machine or organism should be zero at the speed of light (SOL/186,000 mps).

Between a maximum RoO at AM = zero at AR in the ARRF and the minimum RoO/RoO = zero at the SOL we have a calibratable cosmic speedometer which can be used to determine the AM, the absolute motion, of a spacecraft equipped with a VTIC/ITIC combo.

When the AM = the AM of the Earth's reference frame, the VTIC's RoO = the ITIC's RoO for both Earth-bound/non-accelerated observers and the space-borne/accelerated observers.

Whether Earth-bound/non-accelerated or space-borne/accelerated, observers can use the difference of RoOs between the VTIC and the ITIC of a VTIC/ITIC combo to determine the AM of the spacecraft.

Absolute Space [AS] and Absolute Time [AT]

The concept of space/the spatial reality shows that it is completely independent of time/the temporal reality when time is defined/specified as measured by ITIs in ITICs.

When ITICs are accelerated/decelerated and their RoOs/RoTs are adjusted to compensate for the effects of accelerations/decelerations, this compensation causes their TIs—their ITIs—to remain the same in all IRFs, and, therefore, this compensation creates absolute time [AT], also known as universal time [UT].

Absolute time/universal time is independent of space.

Everywhere and anywhere in space in any inertial reference frame [IRF] AT/UT is always the same—the ITICs will show the same face readings to observers traveling uniformly outside the IRFs in which the ITICs are located.

When AT/UT is independent of space, space then becomes absolute space [AS].

When time is measured using ITIs in ITICs, then space and time are independent of each other, and the concept of spacetime [wherein space and time are interreleated and not independent of each other] is destroyed.

The TIs/ITIs in ITICs produce absolute time (AT), or universal time (UT) wherein from the originating reference frame, K, time, t, is the same for all other reference frames, K', K'', K''', etc.; thus for K, K', K'', K''', etc., t = t' = t'' = t''' ... etc. When AT/UT is established, time becomes independent of space, and space, likewise, becomes independent of time, and, therefore, space becomes absolute space

Absolute Length [AL]

A length is a distance/SI between two points on an object/a body such as a ruler or yardstick.

A length can be arbitrarily chosen.

Once chosen, a length becomes abstract but can be made physical by being designed into a ruler/yardstick.

When a ruler/yardstick is accelerated, its length changes—its length is decreased/shortened.

When a ruler/yardstick is decelerated, its length changes—its length is increased/lengthened.

If a ruler/yardstick were adjustable and adjusted to compensate for the effects of shortening caused by accelerations and lengthenings caused by decelerations, then the distance which is the unit of measurement of length [SI] would not change and its length would therefore become an absolute length [AL].

As an adjustable clock can be designed and built using ITIs in either an MSSAITIC design [a motion-sensing self-adjusting ITIC] or an MITIC <-> SITIC design [master ITIC controlling a slave ITIC], an adjustable ruler/yardstick which compensates for the effects of changes of length caused by accelerations/decelerations can be designed and built using an arbitrary length and linked to an ITIC in a process which enables the ITIC to control the length of the ruler/yardstick and thereby cause the ruler's/yardstick's length/unit of measurement to become an absolute length—the same length in any and all IRFs when observed by observers traveling uniformly outside the IRFs.