Lightray B would now travel through Spaceship's
interior and 'go past' Spaceship's CoM at c-v
and yet would
keep pace with Lightray A and would strike Target simultaneously with
Lightray A; obervers on Target would observe Lightrays A and B to
strike Target simultaneously.
Lightray C would be triggered by Lightray B and would keep pace with
both Lightray B and Lightray
A, and it would strike Target simultaneously with Lightrays A and B;
observers on Target would observe Lightrays A, B and C to strike Target
Spaceship's velocity, v
, would not be added to Lightray C.
Conclusion: The speed of light is
c/SOL in vacuo
in the pure vacuum of deep space in which
no other forces are present to cause changes of the inertial
state of a light photon. This SOL
is not added to nor
subtracted from the velocity of a Spaceship moving uniformly through
The SOL as a Limiting
The speed of light/SOL
is supposedly/theoretically a limiting
velocity: No objects/events comprised of m/e can travel faster than the
In theory, when the velocity of an object/event approaches the SOL
the inertial/kinetic mass of the object/event approaches infinity, and
an accelerative or decelerative force cannot move a mass of infinite
Explanation of Why the SOL Is a Limiting Velocity
A force is a push or a pull.
A change of inertial state is caused by a force; a force is the cause
of a change of inertial state.
An acceleration or deceleration is a change of inertial state.
An acceleration is caused by a force.
If the velocity of the m/e of an accelerative force cannot
exceed the SOL
, then, when an object/event comprised of m/e
is traveling at the SOL
, there will be no reactive differential
between the object/event and the accelerative force, and the
accelerative force therefore cannot push against and thereby accelerate
This statement relies upon the principle that for every reaction there
is an equal and opposite reaction.
When (1) the velocity of an object/event is less than the SOL
and (2A) the velocity of m/e of an accelerative force pushing/pulling
the object/event is traveling opposite the direction of the
object/event and (2B) is greater than the velocity of the object/event,
then there will be a reactive differential which will cause the
object/event to be accelerated.
If a rocket motor is attached to the stern of a spaceship and the blast
of the rocket motor's m/e exiting in a direction opposite the direction
of travel of the spaceship does not have a greater velocity than the
velocity of the spaceship, then there cannot be and will not be an
accelerative force applied to the spaceship and the spaceship will not
Intuit a burning of rocket fuel inside a rocket motor as an explosion
in which m/e travels equally in all directions. M/e travels left and
right and up and down and forwards and backwards equally.
If a spaceship is traveling to the left and part of the the m/e blast
from the rocket motor is traveling right, then the m/e traveling left
will attempt to push against the spaceship and cause it to accelerate
to the left.
This phenomenon can only occur when the velocity of the spaceship
traveling left is less than the velocity of the rocket motor's m/e
which is also traveling left.
If the leftward velocity of the spaceship is c/SOL
then the leftward traveling m/e of the rocket motor, being limited
by the SOL
, cannot catch up to and push against and thereby
accelerate the spaceship.
If the accelerative force of a rocket motor is applied at 90º
to the direction of travel of a spaceship traveling uniformly at c/SOL
then, because there is no force causing a change of the spaceship's
inertial state and therefore its direction, the accelerative force
is the only force causing a change of the spaceship's direction, and,
therefore, the force will cause a change of the spaceship's inertial
state and its direction.
This phenomenon will occur despite the mantra that the inertial mass of
a spaceship traveling at c/SOL
is theoretically infinite, and
the inertial state of the infinite mass of the spaceship cannot be
Similarly, a force applied opposite the direction of travel of a
spaceship by a rocket motor in front of the spaceship
a deceleration of the spaceship despite the spaceship's
theoretical infinite inertial mass.
The velocity of the rocket motor's m/e traveling opposite the direction
of travel of the spaceship will cause a reactive differential in the
form of a force—a push—against the spaceship and the spaceship will
decelerate despite its theoretically infinite kinetic/inertial mass.
These considerations suggest the possibility that the kinetic/inertial
mass of an object/event such as a spaceship traveling uniformly at c/SOL
is not infinite, and if a rocket motor could be designed/constructed so
its m/e blast could exceed the c/SOL
and therefore the velocity
of the spaceship, then the spaceship could be accelerated beyond c
Rest Reference Frame [ARRF]
a light photon
moves past the CoM of any object at a true c
that object is at rest relative to the light photon.
an object is at rest relative to a light photon, when
a light photon 'goes past' the organism's/object's CoM at a true
velocity of c
the object is at rest in the
absolute rest reference frame [ARRF], as when at rest in the ARRF, an
object is therefore at absolute rest [AR] with an
absolute velocity [AV] of 0. [AV = 0.]
We now have the intuition that produces the concept of the ARRF and the
principle that the ARRF
is observable when light goes past an organism's/object's CoM at c
We can note that the ARRF is completely independent of any and all
other organisms/objects within space including any and all astronomical
stuffs, gravitational fields, etc.
Absolute Velocity [AV]
The concept of the absolute rest reference frame [ARRF] and
the inertial state of absolute rest [AR] are the bases of the concept
of absolute velocity [AV].
AV would be any speed between AR in the ARRF in which AV = 0 and AV = c/SOL
The Cosmic Speedometer
The concept/principle of the ARRF gives us the concept/principle of the
inertial state of AR at AV = 0 and one end of a cosmic speedomete
whose speed range is AV = 0 at AR in the ARRF to the speedometer's
other end which is AV = c
/186,000 mps max for
organisms/objects/events comprised of matter/energy [m/e]--under the
theory that no organisms/objects/events comprised of m/e can travel
faster than c
AV = 0 mps [at AR in the ARRF] <-----> AV = 186,000
Whether or not organisms/objects/events comprised of m/e
can travel at superluminal speeds [velocities] is a question which
physicists must answer, but for the purposes of this description of
a cosmic speedometer it will be temporarily assumed to be true.
The Universe is comprised of all reality.
Universe = All Reality
The universe is comprised of three realities:
- The Spatial Reality—Space
- The Temporal Reality—Time
- The Physical Reality—Physics [Matter/Energy]
The Spatial Reality—Space
Space is the volume of infinite radius/diameter which is
the location within which exist the temporal reality/time and the
physical reality/physics [m/e].
The unit of measurement of the spatial reality/space is a length.
Space—the spatial reality—has an infinite duration. Space has always
existed, exists now, and will always exist in the future.
Thus, space, being of infinite duration, is infinite in existence in
the temporal reality/time.
The Temporal Reality—Time
Time is the use of a duration called a time-interval [TI] as a unit of
measurement for the measurement and prediction of the occurrences of
Time is a process—the temporal process—by which events in sequences of
events can be related to each other by being measured by a
time-interval and thereby being assigned a timepoint or a series of
timepoints at which/during which the events occurred.
Time as a temporal process is therefore not a causal process. Time is
not a cause of changes of the inertial states of
Time is of infinite duration within the spatial reality/space.
The Continuum of Time
Past Infinity <- ... <- T-2 <- T-1 <-
-> T+1 -> T+2 ... -> Infinity Future
The Continuum of Time shows that time/the temporal reality/the temporal
process is of infinite duration without a beginning and without an
Time/the temporal reality/the temporal process is independent of the
spatial reality/space and the physical reality/physics
The Physical Reality—Physics
Matter/Energy Which Comprises Organisms/Objects/Events]
The physical reality—physics—is the matter/energy which comprises all
The universal m/e is infinite in duration—existing infinitely within
the spatial reality/space and the temporal reality/time.
The universal m/e—the physical reality/physics—was never
created, exists now, will always exist in the future, and predates any
Bangs and postdates any Crunches.
Linkage of Space, Time and Physics (M/E)
Space is the place within which exist time and physics.
At each timepoint on the Continuum of Time there is within space a
specific configuration of physics--a specific configuration of the
that is physics.
As a clock, preferrably an ITIC, measures time, preferrably AT/UT,
there is a one-and-only m/e configuration at each timepoint; as the
measurement of time continues--always in a forward direction from the
the present into the future, the m/e configuration of the T0/Origin
Timepoint (Present Moment) changes from past me/ configurations through
the present m/e configuration into future m/e configurations.
Time travel is not possible because the m/e configurations at past and
future Timepoints do not exist--only the present m/e configuration
exists at Timepont 0.
No one can travel to a past or future m/e configuration that does not
Universe Has Always Existed
When the three realities of the universe are considered to comprise the
universe, the infinite durations of space, time and physics proves that
the universe was never created, has existed in the past,
exists now, and will exist in the future.
Comments: There Is
One And Only One Universe
The term universe
traditionally has meant all reality
and, where the universe has been shown to be a closed/isolated m/e
system to which m/e cannot be added nor removed and in which the sum
total of m/e is a constant, the concepts of parallel universes
and multiple universes
are not acceptable because the m/e of
reality must fit within the one-and-only universe, therefore there can
be no additional universes (no additional m/e external to the