### The Theory of the Practical Limits to the Inverse Square Law

Robert Howard Kroepel
New Durham, New  Hampshire USA 03855-2107
2/14/03

The inverse square mathematical law when applied to gravity, to gravitational fields, says that the strength of a gravitational field, of gravity, is inversely proportional to the distance between (A) a gravitational source and an object within its field, its range or (B) two gravitational sources.

Some theorists claim that a gravitational field has an infinite range, no limits to its effectiveness, no limits to its ability to cause effects within the universe.

Matter/energy causes gravitational fields, gravity being a form of energy which causes gravitational fields.

Consider this: If the effect of a gravitational force is inversely related to the distance from its source, a kinda-sorta 'half-the-distance-to-the-goal-line' phenomenon, there will occur a point in the range at which the effect of the gravitational force will diminish to ineffectiveness and, thus, the range of gravity has a practical limit, a limit you can kinda-sorta physically observe or imagine by the metaphor of a football game of infinite duration in which a referee keeps penalizing an infinitely inept football team and he appears to get to a point wherein although he picks up the ball and appears to move it eventually he stops actually moving the ball and, thus, the ball never gets to the goal line.

There is, therefore, a practical limit wherein the gravitational range becomes ineffective at causing observable effects because of the limits of the inverse square law. I.e., there are, and have to be, limits to a gravitational field range beyond which the field is so weak it cannot cause observable changes in physical phenomena, changes in matter/energy.

If we are here with our cluster of observable matter/energy/gravity and someone else is over there with his/her cluster of matter/energy/gravity, then there is a practical limit to which our gravity can influence their matter/energy, their physical phenomena, and, vice versa, therefore there are limits to our gravitational field range and to their gravitational field range. Our gravity does not pull them to us, and their gravity does not pull us to them, hence there is no mutual gravitational pulling, and unless we are otherwise in motion towards them and they are in motion towards us, in motion away from us but at lesser velocity, or not in motion at all, then at the practical limits of our gravitational fields there will be no causality of physical phenomena and hence no pulling towards each other.

Therefore, the Theory of the Practical Limits of the Inverse Square Law proves there are pre-conditions to limit the range of a gravitational field.

And, because the universe is a closed system insofar as matter/energy, there being no place for matter/energy to ‘go’ beyond the space of this one-and-only universe, and there is no other source of matter/energy within or beyond this one-and-only universe from which matter/energy could be added to the matter/energy present in this one-and-only universe, the sum total of matter/energy in this one-and-only universe is a constant, a finite number, and, since the finite quantity of matter/energy cannot be infinitely dispersed into infinite space, again, because of the Theory of the Practical Limits of the Inverse Square Law, there have to be areas of space in which there is no matter/energy present, and, since gravitational fields are forms of matter/energy, forms of energy, as are electromagnetic fields, they are subject to the inverse square law and, therefore, the practical limit to their effectiveness and therefore their range.

In case you are wondering if I am reading someone else's words regarding the Theory of the Practical Limits of the Inverse Square Law, I am not, therefore I have no URLs/websites or other references to cite.

I am capable of independent intuitive thought, and the Theory of the Practical Limits of  the Inverse Square Law I have articulated was generated by me 2/14/03. Someone else may have generated this conclusion, possibly from other premises, but I am not aware of whom they may be at this timepoint and, therefore, what their premises may be.

Again, the sports metaphor wherein in football the half-the-distance-to-the-goal-line penalty can be readily observed to have a practical limit, as does the inverse square law. You can theoretically measure half-the-distance-to-the-goal line forever, infinitely, but at some point of measurement you have nowhere to move the ball and therefore the ball does not move.

The practical limits to physical phenomena imposed by the Theory of the Practical Limits of the Inverse Square Law is analogous to the infinite computation of the decimal limits of Pi (the circumference of a circle is 3.14??????? ad infinitum times the circle’s diameter) but the practical limits of measurement will produce a string of specific limits representing the circumference, and, hence, a practical end to the infinite computation of the true value of Pi.

Moreover, the singularities claimed to be infinite in size, or lack of size, have to have practical limits, similar to a quantum of light/energy, if you will, which is the limit of practical measurement beyond which physical phenomena do not shrink.

Thus, there is a practical limit to the measurement of any physical phenomena and the inverse square law measurements of physical phenomena are subject to this limit. Therefore, the Theory of the Practical Limits of the Inverse Square Law is a Theory of the Practical Limits of Observation and Measurement.