Speculations 3

Bob Kroepel
Lakeside Studios
New Durham, NH USA 03855

Speculations 3: The Operational Physics (OpPhys) Theory of Time, distortable v non-distortable/adjustable rulers and clocks, the text-only illustrations (Figs 1 and 2) of the Theory of the Spacegrid using only those characters available on a typical computer keyboard, the relative velocity (RV), measured velocity (MV), The Law of Physical States and The Corollaries of the Law of Physical States (earlier versions), The Extrapolation Theory.

The theory of time reveals there is a difference between the operations/measurements of distortable and non-distortable/adjustable rulers and there is a difference between the operations/measurements of distortable and non-distortable/adjustable clocks.

The theory of time reveals howitiz that distances (space) and durations (time) do not change/are not caused to change by measurements/the measurement process.

A relative velocity (RV) is the velocity difference between the measured velocity (MV) of one entity (MVi) and the measured velocity of another entity (MVii).

A measured velocity (MV) is the velocity of an entity measured in relation to a standard reference by which the measured velocities (MVs) of other entities are also measured.

A standard reference is a location in space or a location on an entity such as a planet.

The determination of an RV is given by an RV equation.

Newton's RV Equation: RV = MVi ± MVii

Einstein's RV Equation: RV = (MVi + MVii)/(1 + MVi x MVii/c2)

Einstein's RV equation is 'rigged' so the RV inre light in any form inre an entity including other forms of light is always 1.00c to conform to the special relativity principle that stipulates that the speed of light is the same for all observers.

RF2|> Lightray (MV2 = 1.00c)
RF1|> Spaceship (MV1 = 0.86c)
RF0|——————————| Spacegrid (MV0 = 0.00c)
Fig. 1. T1.

At T1 (Timepoint 1—a mark on a continuum of time or timeline), Lightray is in-motion at MV2 = 1.00c (c = the speed of light in vacuo) inre Fig. 1, Spaceship is in-motion at MV1 = 0.86c, and Spacegrid is a reference frame which is at-rest at MV0 = 0.00c; at T1, Lightray and Spaceship are abreast of each other at the leftmost Spacepoint (|) of the Spacegrid. Moreover, the motions of Lightray and Spacship are independent of each, i.e. there is no causal connection/relationships inre Lightray and Spaceship, therefore both are travelin in vacuo.

RF2|——————————> Lightray (MV2 = 1.00c)
RF1|————————-> Spaceship (MV1 = 0.86c)
RF0|——————————| Spacegrid (MV0 = 0.00c)
Fig. 2. T2.

At T2 inre Fig. 2, Lightray has traveled 10 space-units (distance-units, space-intervals, such as feet, yards, miles, etc.) in 10 time-units (duration-units, time-intervals, such as seconds, minutes, hours, etc.) to the rightmost Spacegrid Spacepoint (|), Spaceship has traveled 8.6 space-units in 10 time-units towards the rightmost Spacegrid Spacepoint, and Spacegrid has not traveled anywhere.

The entities Lightray and Spaceship are independent of each other and therefore there are no causal relationships among them which could cause Lightray to travel past Spaceship at an RV = 1.00c and thereby cause Einstein's RV equation to be valid and therefore the Eiinstein's RV euation is invalid and the correct RV expression for the RV inre Lightray and Spaceship is RV = MVi ± MVii.

RV = MVi ± MVii = MV2 - MV1 = 1.00c - 0.86c = 0.14c.

This RV = 0.14c is clearly shown in Figs 1-2.

RV = (MVi + MVii)/(1 + MVi x MVii/c2)
RV = (MV1 + MV2)/(1 + MV1 x MV2/c2)
RV = (0.86c + 1.00c)/(1 + 1.00c x 0.86c/c2)
RV = (159,960 + 186,000)/(1 + 159,960 x 186,000/(186,000 x 186,000)
RV = (345,960)/(1 + 29,752,560,000/34,596,000,000)
RV = 345,960/(1 + 0.86)
RV = 345,960/1.86
RV = 186,000 = 1.00c

This RV = 1.00c is NOT clearly shown in Figs 1-2.

Lightray, in Figs 1-2, clearly does NOT travel past Spaceship at RV = 1.00c.

These Figs illustrate the reality inre the velocities of entities which are independent of each other.

These Figs also illustrate the conditions Einstein needed to prove his theory of the non-simultaneity/relativity of events using his railway analogy.

These Figs plus my theory of time reveal that any measurements using interferometers which produce experimental results that the speed of light is always 1.00c regardless of the motion of the interferometers are caused by distortable rulers, clocks and observers, and thereby are false.

The Law of Physical States and The Corollaries of the Law of Physical States

The Law of Physical States: The physical state of an entity will remain unchanged until acted upon by a force of some kind—a form of matter/energy (m/e).

The Corollaries of the Law of Physical States:

1. A force is a form of m/e.
2. A force produces a push away from or a pull towards the force source; thus a force is either a push-force or a pull-force.
3. Only a force can change a physical state.
4. The observation of a change of physical state implies the change is an effect caused by a cause which is a force of some kind—a push-force or a pull-force which is a form of m/e.

The Extrapolation Theory

The Extrapolation Principle: Causal relationships (cause-and-effect relationships) observed at one scalar level and/or in one reference frame are assumed to occur at all scalar levels and/or in all reference frames until exceptions are observed.