### The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle/HUP

Robert Howard Kroepel
'Lakeside Studios
New Durham, NH USA 03855

Do causality and determinism occur at Quantum Mechanics/QM scalar levels?

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle/HUP basically says that we cannot, at QM scalar levels, observe or measure simultaneously both the position and the momentum of individual small stuffs. The measurement process requires hitting individual small stuffs with other small stuffs and thereby causes changes in the position and momentum of the small stuffs intended to be observed or measured.

Einstein said that QM was basically an incomplete theory; he argued that causality, and therefore determinism, occurred between and among small stuffs at QM levels.

QM derives its prediction formulas by observing finite volumes filled with known quantities of small stuffs and observing the percentage of the total quantities of small stuffs which undergo changes of inertial states (from being at rest to being in motion and from being in motion to being at rest, atomic decay, etc.); these observations are statistically averaged to give the QM prediction formulas for QM-level small stuffs.

Where we cannot observe and predict the causality and determinism which cause changes of inertial states of individual small stuffs we can predict the causality and determinism which cause changes of inertial states of percentages of small stuffs in crowds of small stuffs within finite volumes.

But does causality and therefore determinism occur at QM small stuff levels?

Consider:

Charles Proteus Steinmetz: The Fundamental Law of Physics

Charles Proteus Steinmetz.
Four Lectures on Relativity and Space.
Dover Publications, Inc., 180 Varick Street, New York, NY 10014 1967
pp. 49–50.

The fundamental law of physics is the law of inertia. "A body keeps the same state as long as there is no cause to change its state." That is, it remains at rest or continues the same kind of motion—that is, motion with the same velocity in the same direction—until some cause changes it, and such cause we call a 'force.' " [Quotes in the original, but not attributed to anyone.]

This is really not merely a law of physics, but it is the fundamental law of logic. It is the law of cause and effect: "Any effect must have a cause, and without cause there can be no effect." This is axiomatic and is the fundamental conception of all knowledge, because all knowledge consists in finding the cause of some effect or the effect of some cause, and therefore must presuppose that every effect has some cause, and inversely. [Quotes in the original but not attributed to anyone.]

R. H. Kroepel: The Corollaries of the Law of Inertia

From the Law of Inertia the following Corollaries can be derived

The Corollaries of the Law of Inertia

1. A force—a push or a pull which causes accelerations or decelerations—is the cause of the effect which is a change of inertial state or inertial reference frame.
2. The observation of a change of inertial state or inertial reference frame implies the cause to be a force of some kind.]

Note Corollary #2.

Corollary #2 suggests that causality and determinism occur at any scalar levels.

Any observation of a change of inertial states of groups of small stuffs in crowds of small stuffs (which gives us the average percentage of changes of inertial states of small stuffs in crowds of known quantities of small stuffs within finite volumes needed for QM prediction formulas) implies the causes of such changes to be forces of some kind, therefore causality and determinism do in fact occur at QM small stuff levels.

An observation of the changes of inertial states of percentages of small stuffs in crowds of small stuffs at QM levels and the implication that those changes were caused by forces of some kind is an indirect observation of the occurrence of causality and determinism at QM levels, but that observation is real and cannot be ignored—it won't ever go away, and that observation is a bridge between QM and classical mechanics.

Einstein was righte—inre observing and measuring the forces that are involved in the causality and determinism that cause changes of inertial states of individual small stuffs at QM scalar levels, QM is an incomplete theory.

These considerations do not imply that QM is a false theory—the success of the statistically derived QM prediction formulas proves that QM is in fact a successful theory.

References:

The Oxford Dictionary of Physics

Uncertainty Principle (Heisenberg uncertainty principle; principle of indeterminism) The principle that it is not possible to know with unlimited accuracy both the position and momentum of a particle. This principle, discovered in 1927 by Werner Heisenberg, is usually stated  in the form: ∆xpxh/4π, where ∆x is the uncertainty of the x-coordinate of the particle, ∆px is the uncertainty in the x-component of the particle's momentum, and h is the Planck constant. An explanation of the uncertainty is that in order to locate a particle exactly, an observer must be able to bounce off it a photon of radiation; this act of location itself alters the position of the particle in an unpredictable way. To locate the position exactly photons of short wavelength would have to be used. The high momenta of such photons would cause a large effect on the position. On the other hand, using photons of lower momenta would have less effect on the particle's position, but would be less accurate because of the longer wavelength.

Gleiser, Marcello
The Dancing Universe: From Creation Myths to the Big Bang
Plume Books, Penguin Group, Penguin-Putnam, Inc., 375 Hudson St., New York, NY USA, 10014 1998
pp. 234-237.

Greene, Brian R.
The Elegant Universe
Vintage Books, Random House, New York, 2000
pp. 112-116.

Hawking, Stephen
A Brief History of Time
Bantam Books, Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc, 666 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10103
pp. 53-55.

Lerner, Eric
The Big Bang Never Happened
Vintage Books, Random House, Inc. New York, 1991
pp. 354-355.