### The Extrapolation Principle

Robert Howard Kroepel
Lakeside Studios
New Durham, New Hampshire USA 03855-2107

The extrapolation principle (EP) says that when a phenomenon is observed at one scalar level it is assumed to occur at all scalar levels until a disconfirming/falsifying case is observed (and not merely intuited).

The extrapolation principle is similar to inductive reasoning in which many examples/cases are observed to derive data from which generalizations can be derived which are assumed to be true/verified until a disconfirming/falsifying case is observed.

In inductive reasoning there is no necessary initial assumption of the extrapolation principle, but it is implied as true/verified until a disconfirming/falsifying case is observed.

Thus, to include the extrapolation principle, the scientific method can be modified slightly:

1. Specify the unit of study [the people/things/events to be studied].
2. Observe and/or measure the units of study to gather data.
3. Create a causal hypothesis which describes and predicts the causes of effects among the people/things/events who/which are the units of study.
4. Observe/measure more people/things/events who/which are units of study to gather additional data which can be used to confirm [verify] or deny [falsify] the causal hypothesis.
5. Determine if or not the additional data confirm/verify or deny the causal hypothesis.
6. If the data confirm the causal hypothesis, then let other people know of the hypothesis and the scientific method that lead to the creation and confirmation of the hypothesis, and declare the verified/confirmed hypothesis to be a scientific law/law of nature; but if the data do not confirm the causal hypothesis, then either revise the hypothesis to fit the data, or else create a new hypothesis and follow the Scientific Method Steps 4-6. Extrapolation of the confirmed hypothesis from the observed scales to all other scales until disconfirming [falsifying] people/things/events are observed is acceptable.