### Detecting Absolute Motion (AM), Absolute Rest (AR), and the Absolute Rest Reference Frame (ARRF)

Robert Howard Kroepel
Lakeside Studios
New Durham, New Hampshire, USA 03855

Can physicists detect Absolute Motion (AM), Absolute Rest (AR) and/or the Absolute Rest Reference Frame (ARRF)?

A definition of time can be used to detect AM/AR/the ARRF.

Time is the use of time-intervals as units of measurement for [i]the measurement of the occurrences of events in sequences of events[/i].

Time is the answer to the question of When?

When humans 'do time' they want to know When? an event occurred relative either to the present moment or to specific known events.

Gross time measurements are general descriptions of before/during/after an event.

Specific time measurements are specifications (specific descriptions) of the number of time-intervals before, the number of time-intervals during, or the number of time-intervals after the occurrence of an event.

Time is contrasted with space.

Space = Where? v. Time = When?

Thus, an object/machine/organism/event can be described by Where? and/or by When?

The essence of time is the time-interval.

For every time-interval there is a specific duration.

Time-intervals were originally copied from naturally recurring periodic motions such as the motion of the Earth in its yearly/annual orbit about the Sun.

Thus, a year has a duration relative to the motion of the Earth in orbit about the Sun, with relative durations of hour, minute, second, etc., deriving from the duration of the recurring Earth's orbit abouit the Sun.

Time can be measured as timepoints by time-intervals from an originating timepoint, TO, both into the future and into the past to create a Continuum of Time:

Past Infinity <- ... <- T-2 <- T-1 <- TO -> T+1 -> T+2 -> ... -> Infinity Future

Time-intervals can be variable or invariable.

A variable time-interval changes by increases or decreases in its duration.

An invariable time-interval does not increase or decrease its duration, i.e its duration remains steady and therefore invariable.

A time-interval sets the rate of operation, or roo, of a machine, an organism or an event, expressable as operations per time-interval.

Example: In music, a beat is the duration of a conductor's baton motion from the beginning of a downbeat or downstroke through an upbeat or upstroke to the end of the next downbeat/downstroke.

Downbeat = \

Upbeat = /

Beat = /\ (or \[b]/\[/b]/)

The duration of a beat sets the tempo, or rate of operation/roo for a performance of a song/composition.

The duration of a beat in music can be varied, and, thus, the tempo/roo of a performance can be varied.

A clock is a machine used to measure time/time-intervals.

T = Time

TI = Time-Interval

VTI = Variable Time-Interval

ITI = Invariable Time-Interval

VTIC = Variable Time-Interval Clock

ITIC = Invariable Time-Interval Clock

When T is measured by a TI which is a VTI in a VTIC, such as a mechanical/electric/electronic/atomic clock, when the VTIC is accelerated its rate of operation (roo) will decrease/slow down and time will appear to decrease/slow down as well, and when the VTIC is decelerated its roo will increase/speed up and time will appear to increase/speed up.

When T is measured by a TI which is an ITI in an ITIC, such as a motion-sensing and self-adjusting clock, or a clock which is synchronized by radio signals from a master clock, when the ITIC is accelerated or decelerated its roo will not change and time will remain the same for all ITICs, and Absolute Time (AT) is achieved.

When T is measured by a TI which is an ITI in an ITIC and is therefore AT, then simultaneity is defined as when two (or more) events accur at/during the same timepoint.

When a VTIC and an ITIC are set to the same TI they will operate at the same roo in either (A) the original reference frame (ORF) or (B) at the same velocity as the original velocity (OV) when they were set into operation.

The comparison of the roo of a VTIC to the roo of an ITIC could be used to determine three physical conditions: Absolute Motion (AM), Absolute Rest (AR), and the Absolute Rest Reference Frame (ARRF).

If a VTIC and an ITIC are placed aboard a spaceship and accelerated (by the application of a force), the VTIC's roo will slow but the ITIC's roo will remain steady until the SOL is approached/achieved, at which velocity the VTIC will cease to operate and its roo will be zero.  Thus, at the SOL, the minimum roo of the VTIC would be achieved.

In theory, the ITIC's roo will also be zero, but for this thought experiment this fact is to be disregarded.

If the combination of VTIC/ITIC aboard the spaceship were decelerated (by the application of a force), then the VTIC's roo would increase while the ITIC's roo would remain steady, and when the spaceship stopped its motion and thereby achieved AR and thus entered the ARRF, the VTIC's roo would be at its maximum.

NOTE: Velocity in physics is speed and direction, and when an object is decelerated by the application of a force which slows down/decreases its speed while maintaining its direction there will be a point in the deceleration in which the motion of the object will cease entirely and if the force is applied after/beyond that point the object will begin to accelerate in the opposite direction.

NOTE: The ITIC used for comparison is in theory to remain at a constant roo regardless of its velocity.

Thus, the roo of a VTIC would serve as a cosmic speedometer/speed gauge when compared to an ITIC when both are set to the same TI/roo in the originating reference frame/ORF.

By the comparison of a VTIC roo with an ITIC roo, AM can be detected from the reading of the VTIC.

VTIC: Max ROO/AM = 0 = AR/ARRF <-> OV/ORF ROO/ITIC ROO <-> Min/ROO = 0/AM = SOL

Thus, if it were possible to compare a VTIC roo to an ITIC roo after the TIs and therefore the roos of both the VTIC and the ITIC are set to be identical in the ORF, the VTIC would serve as a cosmic speedometer with a range from its max at AM zero in the ARRF and its min/zero at AM SOL, and, therefore, whatever is the reading of  the VTIC roo, that roo will be the speedometer reading for the AM of an object.

And, thus, in theory, at least, by the use of a definition of time AM, AR and the ARRF can be detected.